"No More Mirrors to Try" means that Yum is having problems connecting to any repositories to find the files in question.
Looking at the packages causing the error, they are nothing to do with php. It sounds to me like your system may have been very out of date to start with - especially if it took 2 hours to do the updates up to this point.
To take one example, tzdata-java-2010i-1.el5.x86_64 was released in April. It is in the standard Centos repositories, so if your system is having problems finding it, then something worrying is going on.
It may be that it is a temporary issue though. Or maybe yum has become confused.
As a work-around, you can download them directly from one of the many mirrors available.
For example this one: http://mirror.bytemark.co.uk/centos/5.5 ... 6_64/RPMS/
then install with rpm -Uvh whatever.rpm
But please be careful. Following my suggestion may cause more problems than you started with. It would be much better to fix your problem with Yum before you start messing around with manual installs. ** It might screw things up big time **. So please wait for someone else to comment on your post, hopefully with more sensible advice than mine.
In the meantime, can you post your /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo in case something has gone wrong with it?
Can it you look at the mirrorlist= line in that file..... are you able to ping the url mentioned from your server? Or try using Lynx to connect and browse it?